Cohort and Optional Required Courses


Elements of theory and of Canadian policy and institutions concerning the economics of markets and market behaviour, prices and costs, exchange and trade, competition and monopoly, distribution of income.

Elements of theory and of Canadian policy and institutions concerning the economics of growth and business cycles, national income accounting, interest and exchange rates, money and banking, the balance of trade.

Economic inequality in Canada and other countries; measurement and causes. Inequality in the distribution of wealth; redistribution of income and wealth; notions of distributive justice. Provides needed content on ethics in a global economic context.

Consumer behaviour, producer theory, exchange, monopoly, oligopoly, externalities, public goods, general equilibrium and welfare economics. Registration restricted to students in the Bachelor of International Economics Program.

Advanced topics in intermediate microeconomics: risk and uncertainty, some concepts in game theory, adverse selection, moral hazard, bargaining, auctions. Registration restricted to students in the Bachelor of International Economics Program.

Income and employment theory, monetary theory, the open economy, economic fluctuations and growth.

Basic tools for the statistical analysis of economic data. Registration restricted to students in the Bachelor of International Economics Program.

Empirical tools used in applied research, with emphasis on the linear regression model. Registration restricted to students in the Bachelor of International Economics program.

Social and economic implications for both rich and poor countries of lowered barriers to the international flows of information, capital, labour and goods.

Techniques and problems in benefit-cost analysis of public projects. Examination of alternative approaches to public decision-making such as cost-effectiveness analysis and multiple-objective frameworks. Case studies of projects in the areas of natural resources, the environment, human resources, public services, and transportation.

Industrialization of an agrarian economy; how the West grew rich; history of Japanese development; technical progress and growth; evolution of the patterns of income distribution; role of international trade in development; environment and development.

Divergence in the world economy, poverty, consequences of initial inequality, institutions, the impact of history, recent developmental experience--some case studies, labour and credit markets, the trickle down process.

International trade theory and policy in general equilibrium; relative costs, factor proportions, imperfect competition and the pattern of trade; efficiency and distribution.

Balance of payments; market for foreign exchange; mechanism for adjusting the balance of payments; internal vs. external stability; current problems and issues.

Econometric methodologies necessary to conduct applied research, including time series analysis and panel data methods; review of empirical work in international economics. Registration restricted to students in the Bachelor of International Economics Program.

Focus on a particular aspect of applied international economics. Independent empirical research project required. Registration restricted to students in the Bachelor of International Economics Program.

  • Four topic areas to complete independent empirical research project are: Trade, Finance, Development and Environment. Prerequisite is required for each area:
    • Trade: ECON455 or ECON456
    • Finance: One of COEC370, COEC387
    • Development: One of ECON441, ECON442
    • Environment: One of COEC475 (preferred), ECON471, ECON472
  • Students must complete the required prerequisite prior to taking ECON494 in the relevant area.


Introduction to the construction and interpretation of financial reports prepared primarily for external use.

Introduction to the development and use of accounting information for management planning and control and the development of cost information for financial reports.

The process of marketing research including topics such as problem/opportunity formulation, research objectives, data sources, research instrument design, sampling, data collection and processing and methods of data analysis.

Examination of corporate enterprise decisions including capital budgeting; capital structure choice, and financial policies, tools, and valuation.

Basic concepts of finance, including security valuation, security markets, and financial decisions concerning risk and return.

Structure, nature and institutions of foreign exchange markets, including spot, forward, futures, options, and offshore currency markets. Factors affecting exchange rates are also discussed.

Financial issues encountered by those active on the investing side of entrepreneurship, such as working for banks, venture capital firms, or corporate venture organizations, or anyone interacting with entrepreneurs and private equity investors.

Theory and technology of database management from an applications perspective; database design; database administration.

Economic analysis of environmental problems, energy systems, and natural resources. Policy options to help resolve these issues.

Concepts and processes for the strategic management of private sector, single and multi-business unit enterprises are analysed using the case method. Methodologies which draw on economic and organizational theory are integrated to form the foundations for strategic analyses.

The particular problems and experiences encountered in starting, developing and managing new enterprises. The course includes lectures, guest speakers, and case studies.

Development of general environmental framework for international business studies by drawing on international and development economics, research into government-business relations and studies in comparative socio-cultural systems and political systems.


Derivatives and rates of change, exponential and trigonometric functions, Newton's method, Taylor polynomials, maxima and minima, and graphing.

Antiderivatives, the definite integral, techniques of integration, infinite series, partial derivatives, maxima and minima with constraints, discrete and continuous random variables.


Writing and reading in the social sciences and humanities, focusing on practices which the research disciplines share, and those which differentiate them.

*B.I.E. students are allowed a maximum of 27 credits of COEC courses towards the completion of their B.I.E. degree but cannot take any other credits in the Sauder School of Business.

Only students who are currently in the B.I.E+MM program are allowed to use the COMM courses required by the MM curriculum as B.I.E electives. The maximum of 27 credits of Business (COEC and COMM) courses applies to B+MM students as well.

**B.I.E. students who are in the B+MM program are allowed to use the required B+MM courses (i.e. COMM120, 220, 321, and 420) as electives but cannot exceed the maximum of 27 credits of Business (COMM and COEC) courses limit. They must take COEC370 and are also allowed to take another ECON 400-level course in place of COEC 294, 365 or 491 towards the BIE Year 3 and 4 Other Required Courses.